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JENNIFER RATNER-ROSENHAGEN is the Merle Curti Associate Professor of History at the University of Wisconsin– Madison. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago 60637 The University of Chicago Press, Ltd., London © 2012 by The University of Chicago All rights reserved. Published 2012. Printed in the United States of America 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 1 2 3 4 5 ISBN-13: 978-0-226-70581-1 (cloth) ISBN-10: 0-226-70581-1 (cloth) ISBN-13: 978-0-226-70584-2 (e-book) A subvention for this publication has been awarded through a competitive grant from the University of Wisconsin– Madison Provost’s Office and the Graduate School. Graduate School funding has been provided by the Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation (WARF) with income generated by patents filed through WARF by UW–Madison faculty and staff. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Ratner-Rosenhagen, Jennifer. American Nietzsche : a history of an icon and his ideas/ Jennifer Ratner-Rosenhagen. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN-13: 978-0-226-70581-1 (hardcover : alk. paper) ISBN-10: 0-226-70581-1 (hardcover : alk. paper) 1. Nietzsche, Friedrich Wilhelm, 1844–1900. 2. Nietzsche, Friedrich Wilhelm, 1844–1900—Influence. 3. United States— Civilization—German influences. 4. Philosophy, American. 5. United States—Intellectual life. I. Title. B3317.R3382012 193—dc22 2011011189 This paper meets the requirements of ANSI/NISO Z39.48-1992 (Permanence of Paper). JENNIFER RATNER-ROSENHAGEN American NIETZSCHE A HISTORY OF AN ICON AND HIS IDEAS The University of Chicago Press Chicago and London For My Parents CONTENTS Cover Copyright List of Illustrations PROLOGUE Transatlantic Crossings: The Aboriginal Intellect Abroad INTRODUCTION CHAPTER ONE The Making of the American Nietzsche Nietzsche and the European Axis of American Cosmopolitanism The Nietzsche Vogue The Persona of Nietzsche Launching “ Nietzschean” and “Nietzscheism” into American English CHAPTER TWO The Soul of Man under Modernity Nietzsche and the Problems of Modern Thought Unapologetic Catholic Apologetics The Social Gospel and the Practicability of Christianity Nietzsche’s Service to Christianity Jesus of Nazareth, Nietzsche of Naumburg CHAPTER THREE The American Naturalization of the Übermensch The Übermensch in the Popular Imagination Self-Overcoming and Social Uplift Modern Whirl and Romantic Self-Abandonment The Übermensch and the German National Mind The Übermensch at War and the “Made in Germany” Generation To Each His Own Übermensch CHAPTER FOUR Nietzsche as Educator Experiencing Intellect; or, World-Making Words Imitatio Nietzsche The “Gay Science” of Cultural Criticism The Modern Intellect and Prophetic Longing INTERLUDE Devotions: The Letters Nietzsche Possession, Possessing Nietzsche Nietzschean Self-Fashioning Nietzsche Pilgrimage Pathos of Distance from Democratic Culture CHAPTER FIVE Dionysian Enlightenment Walter Kaufmann, German Émigrés, and Nietzsche as Hitler’s Exile Nietzsche as Problem Thinker Nietzsche and the Nazis Nietzschean Experimentalism and Jamesian Pragmatism Counter-Dionysian Enlightenments Kaufmann’s Nietzsche for All and None CHAPTER SIX Antifoundationalism on Native Grounds Harold Bloom: The Quest for Emersonian Priority Richard Rorty: Fusing the Horizons between Nietzsche and the Pragmatists Stanley Cavell: Nietzsche, Emerson, and American Philosophy Finding Its Way Home Thinking about American Thinking EPILOGUE Nietzsche Is Us Acknowledgments Notes Bibliography Index ILLUSTRATIONS Nietzsche’s note to himself, written on the back of his first fan letter from the United States (1881) Nietzsche’s copy of Emerson’s Essays Nietzsche’s notebook with his transcribed Emerson quotations Nietzsche at age sixteen in front of the Schulpforta church (circa summer 1861) Nietzsche’s marginalia in Emerson’s “Spiritual Laws” Nietzsche at age thirty-eight (1882) “Nietzsche—The Antichrist!” from Current Literature (April 1908) Max Klinger, sculpture of Nietzsche, as reproduced in Current Literature (March 1906) Nietzsche at age twenty, with his Franconia Fraternity in Bonn (1865) Nietzsche’s “Protest against Himself,” from Paul Carus, “Immorality as a Philosophic Principle” (Monist, July 1899) M. Klein, statue of Nietzsche, as reproduced in Paul Carus, “Fried

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