• Document: DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A MICROCONTROLLER BASED AUTOMATIC THREE PHASE SELECTOR
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Vol-3 Issue-1 2017 IJARIIE-ISSN(O)-2395-4396 DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF A MICROCONTROLLER BASED AUTOMATIC THREE PHASE SELECTOR Ihedioha Ahmed C. Enugu State University of Science and Technology Enugu, Nigeria ABSTRACT The power instability in country has brought about the need for automation in the selection of phase with the best available power supply in the public utility supply and switch to an alternative means of power when there is total power outage. Thus, this work is concerned with design and implementation of a microcontroller based automatic three phase selector. The construction of this automatic three phase selector was interesting, stimulating and challenging but only in its efficient performance and reliability can any real level of success be measured. The functionality values of the work make it desirable to be developed especially in all residential and small commercial buildings using three phase. It saves resources like time, energy and even lives while ensuring automatic and efficient domestic power load sharing from the consumer end. Keywords: Power instability, Automation, Phase selector, Microcontroller 1.0 INTRODUCTION In developing countries like Nigeria, there is always the problem of interrupted power supply as insufficient power is being generated to provide consumers with continuous services and satisfactory quality. This leads to constant power failure which in turn affects both the public and private sectors of the economy. Industries, banks, hospitals and so many other public and private establishment all have major critical loads that needs to be powered at all times in order to carry out various processes efficiently [1]. Also load demand is increasing on daily basis; the major problem consumers are confronting is power interruption. Due to this power break, a lot of damage is caused to household appliances and occasionally to life. The problem of power pause originated from single phase faults in distribution system while power is available in other phase(s) [2]. While most domestic loads are connected to single phase supply and if the fault occurs in any one of the phases and the power is available in other phases, we cannot utilize that power. There is therefore a need to automatically switch from one phase to other and auxiliary supply when there is a power failure in any one or all of three phases of the power supply The introduction of some of these alternative sources of power supply brings forth the challenge of switching smoothly in a timely manner between the mains supply and the alternative sources whenever there is a failure on the mains source. Automatic three phase selector is an integral part of the process of power generation, allowing smooth and instant transfer of electric current between multiple sources and load [3]. The function of the automatic three phase selector is to monitor the incoming public supply voltage and detect when the voltage drops below a certain level that electrical/electronic appliances can function depending on the utility supply. The compares the automatic three phase selector voltage of the other two phases using a comparator circuit and if the voltages are not available, the system changes over from public supply to generator. When the generator is in operation, it prevents any feedback current to the load. It also ensures that the different power sources are synchronized before the load is transferred to them. The transfer switch senses when there is interruption if the mains supply remains absent [4]. The principle of the automatic three phase selector is such that it links the load and mains supply or the alternative supply together. This enables the use of either the mains supply or an alternative source when there is outage on the mains source which can either be a three phase or a single phase [5]. 3398 www.ijariie.com 115 Vol-3 Issue-1 2017 IJARIIE-ISSN(O)-2395-4396 2.0 AUTOMATIC THREE PHASE SELECTOR The Automatic Three Phase Selector is a system that compares the voltage of the other two phases using a comparator circuit and if the voltages are not available, the system changes over from public supply to generator. It is an electrical circuit capable of comparing three phases and switching over of the phases automatically. The use of the automatic three phase selector did not just start up so easily [6]. In the earlier days consumers of electric power always use manual method to operate these phases. Without knowing if there is high voltage on the supply on the other phases. Then there came for the need of automatic phase selector of the phases. In other that this selecting or switching from one phase to another might be done automatically and quickly, an electrical dev

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