• Document: Comparative transcriptome analysis on the alteration of gene expression in ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis) larvae associated with salinity change
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ZOOLOGICAL RESEARCH Comparative transcriptome analysis on the alteration of gene expression in ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis) larvae associated with salinity change Xin-Jiang LU1, Hao ZHANG1, Guan-Jun YANG1, Ming-Yun LI1, Jiong CHEN1,2,* 1 Laboratory of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Marine Sciences, Ningbo University, Ningbo 315211, China 2 Collaborative Innovation Center for Zhejiang Marine High-Efficiency and Healthy Aquaculture, Ningbo University, Ningbo 315211, China ABSTRACT Transcriptome analysis; Growth rate; Real-time quantitative PCR Ayu (Plecoglossus altivelis) fish, which are an amphidromous species distributed in East Asia, live INTRODUCTION in brackish water (BW) during their larval stage and in fresh water (FW) during their adult stage. In this A variety of fish undergo migration to cope with environmental study, we found that FW-acclimated ayu larvae fluctuations, such as temperature variation and food availability exhibited a slower growth ratio compared with that of (Jorgensen & Johnsen, 2014). Some fish species migrate BW-acclimated larvae. However, the mechanism seaward after hatching to grow in marine habitats, and then underlying FW acclimation on growth suppression is migrate riverward to further develop in freshwater. This type of poorly known. We employed transcriptome analysis diadromy is categorized as amphidromy (McDowall, 1992). Ayu to investigate the differential gene expression of FW (Plecoglossus altivelis), the only member in the genus acclimation by RNA sequencing. We identified 158 Plecoglossus of the family Plecoglossidae, is an amphidromous upregulated and 139 downregulated transcripts in fish distributed in East Asia. After hatching in estuaries, ayu FW-acclimated ayu larvae compared with that in larvae migrate to the sea where they spend the winter. In spring, BW-acclimated larvae. As determined by Gene they move to the middle reaches of rivers, before returning to Ontology annotation and Kyoto Encyclopedia of estuaries in autumn where they spawn and die. Hence, Genes and Genomes pathway mapping, functional osmoregulation in ayu seems to be related to their growth and annotation of the genes covered diverse biological development; however, it is still unclear which genes mediate functions and processes, and included neuroendo- osmoregulation and growth of ayu larvae. 1 crinology, osmotic regulation, energy metabolism, The growth rates of teleosts can be affected by salinity and the cytoskeleton. Transcriptional expression of (Gillanders et al., 2015; Schwarz & Allen, 2014). Salinity several differentially expressed genes in response to induced-change in growth rates mainly results from standard FW acclimation was further confirmed by real-time metabolic rates and hormonal stimulation (Boeuf & Payan, quantitative PCR. In accordance with transcriptome 2001). Fish can acclimate to different salinity conditions during analysis, iodothyronine deiodinase (ID), pro-opiom- migration by several osmoregulatory mechanisms. Osmoregulation elanocortin (POMC), betaine-homocysteine S-meth- occurs in two consecutive phases: (1) an initial period with yltransferase 1 (BHMT), fructose-bisphosphate aldolase changing osmotic variables; and (2) a chronic regulatory period B (aldolase B), tyrosine aminotransferase (TAT), and during which the variables reach new homeostasis (Holmes & Na+-K+ ATPase (NKA) were upregulated after FW Donaldson, 1969). During these two phases, altered gene acclimation. Furthermore, the mRNA expressions of expressions play an important role (Weng et al., 2002). b-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and transgelin were downregulated after FW acclimation. Our data Received: 02 December 2015; Accepted: 29 April 2016 indicate that FW acclimation reduced the growth rate Foundation items: The project was supported by the Program for the of ayu larvae, which might result from the expression National Natural Science Foundation of China (31201970) and the KC alteration of genes related to endocrine hormones, energy metabolism, and direct osmoregulatio

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