• Document: Mechanics of the Human Spine Lifting and Spinal Compression
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Low Back Pain (LBP) Mechanics of the   Lifetime prevalence of LBP is very high (80+%) Human Spine   MMH is a major cause of work related LBP and Lifting and Spinal Compression other musculoskeletal injuries.   However, LBP is common in work environments where no MMH occur, such as seated work. Hamill and Knutzen: Chapter 7 Nordin and Frankel: Ch. 10 by Margareta Lindh   Work-related psychological stress and lifestyle Hall: Ch. 9 (more muscle anatomy detail than required) factors may also increase LBP risk.   Possibly only 33% of work-related LBP is due to lifting and bending tasks (Brown, 1973 & Magora, 1974) Review terms: tension, compression, shear, bending, torsion. Most flexion in these regions 1 Relative loads on the third lumbar disk for living subjects Upright standing depicted as 100% Many subjects report the position below gives them the most relief from back pain as this relaxes the psoas muscle. The line of gravity shifts further ventrally during relaxed unsupported sitting (B) as the pelvis is tilted backward and the lumbar lordosis flattens (this creates a longer lever arm). When sitting erect (C) the pelvic backward tilt is reduced and the lever arm shortens (still longer than when standing (A). 2 Another use of EMG Decrease is seen in all spinal regions Compressive Disk Force vs. different backrest inclination and size of lumbar support 3 Causes of LBP Personal Risk Factors   Physique / anthropometry / strength LBP is a big industrial (static / dynamic endurance) problem (low back injury claims account   Physical fitness / health history / spinal for 40-50% of abnormalities / spinal mobility compensation claims in   Age / gender some industries) but it   Psychophysical factors / motivation is not only caused by   Training and selection (experience) lifting. Workplace Risk Factors Causes of Reportable Injuries   Load characteristics (weight, size, shape, handles, other couplings)   Posture / handling techniques (stretching, reaching, twisting)   Confined environments / spatial restraints   Safety aspects / protective equipment   Duration / repetition   Work organization (spacing tasks out)   Environment (heat, humidity, noise, glare, etc.) 4 Types of Handling Accidents Manual Handling Injuries   Approximate 33% of the U.S. workforce is presently required to exert significant force as part of their jobs (NIOSH, 1981).   This figure has not changed much in recent years.   This can lead to external injuries (cuts, bruises, crush injuries, lacerations of fingers, hands, forearms, ankles and feet), internal injurie

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