• Document: UNDANG-UNDANG BAGI DIRI KERAJAAN TERENGGANU, 1911 DAN PENGEKALAN STATUS MELAYU ISLAM TERENGGANU
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UNDANG-UNDANG BAGI DIRI KERAJAAN TERENGGANU, 1911 DAN PENGEKALAN STATUS MELAYU ISLAM TERENGGANU (The Law for the Self-Government of Terengganu, 1911 and the Maintaining of the Status of Malay Muslims in Terengganu) Nik Haslinda Nik Hussain nlinda@usm.my Pusat Pengajian Ilmu Kemanusiaan Universiti Sains Malaysia Abstrak Makalah ini bertujuan meneliti Undang-undang Tubuh (Perlembagaan) Negeri Terengganu atau dinamakan Undang-undang Tubuh bagi Diri Kerajaan Terengganu Nama rasminya Iqtan al-Muluk bi ta’dil al-suluk (Iqtanul Muluk). Penggubalan Iqtanul Muluk sebagai penegasan kedaulatan negara bangsa Terengganu dalam mengekalkan status Melayu Islam. Tujuan utama penggubalannya bagi mengukuhkan kedudukan raja dan agama Islam di negeri Terengganu daripada pengaruh British. Penulisan makalah ini dihasilkan melalui kaedah kepustakaan dengan mengumpul data berkaitan, seperti teks Undang-undang bagi Diri Kerajaan Terengganu, cap mohor di Arkib Negara Malaysia Kuala Lumpur dan cawangan negeri Terengganu serta Muzium Terengganu. Melalui kaedah sejarah, teks Itqanul Muluk ditelusuri dan dianalisis untuk melihat konsep penegasan kedaulatan negara bangsa Terengganu sehingga mampu mengekalkan status Melayu Islam di negeri itu. Secara keseluruhannya, kajian ini mendapati Itqanul Muluk menjadi benteng dalam mempertahankan dan menyelamatkan Terengganu daripada dikuasai oleh British sehingga status Melayuiyah dan Islamiyah yang terkandung di dalamnya masih kekal hingga ke hari ini. Kata kunci: Undang-undang Tubuh (Perlembagaan) Negeri Terengganu, Melayuiyah, Islamiyah, perlembagaan negeri Islam, kerajaan Melayu Islam, pengaruh British Abstract The Law for the Self-Government of Terengganu, or Iqtanal-Muluk bi Ta’dil al- Suluk was written to strengthen the position of the King and Islam and to resist the 41 3 Undang-undang bagi diri kerajaan.indd 41 2/26/14 1:39 PM MELAYU: JURNAL ANTARABANGSA DUNIA MELAYU JILID 7 BIL. 1 2014 influence of British colonial powers in the state of Terengganu. This law is regarded as a constitution for the state because of its generality that can be interpreted as meeting the requirements of an Islamic state constitution. The reason for drawing up this important document in the context of the State was the result of a conscious awareness to save Terengganu from the directly or indirectly from British control. This paper seeks to examine the assertion of sovereignty in Iqtanul Muluk for the nation-state of Terengganu and maintaining the position of the Malay Muslims. This study was conducted using library research, which includes the gathering and collecting of relevant literature, and data from documents such as the text of the Law for Self-Government of Terengganu and royal seals from the National Archives of Malaysia in Kuala Lumpur and the Terengganu branch, as well as the Museum of Terengganu. Using the method of historical research, the text of Itqanul Muluk was carefully analyzed to determine the nation-state sovereignty of Terengganu, which preserved the status of the Malay Muslims in the state. Overall, the research reveals that Itqanul Muluk was successful in preventing Terengganu from being completely overpowered by the British to the extent that a strong Malay and Muslim identity is still felt in the state till today. Keywords: Law for Self-Government of Terengganu, Melayuiyah, Islamiyah, Islamic constitution, Malay-Muslim government, British influence PENDAHULUAN Terengganu merupakan antara negeri tertua di Tanah Melayu, dipercayai telah wujud semasa kegemilangan Kerajaan Srivijaya.1 Terengganu menjadi kerajaan pelabuhan sejak awal abad ke-18 lagi,2 dengan k

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