• Document: 48-Volt Electrical Systems A Key Technology Paving to the Road to Electric Mobility
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48-Volt Electrical Systems – A Key Technology Paving to the Road to Electric Mobility German Electrical and Electronic Manufacturers’ Association 48-Volt Electrical Systems – A Key Technology Paving the Road to Electric Mobility Published by: ZVEI - German Electrical and Electronic Manufacturers’ Association Electronic Components and Systems and PCB and Electronic Systems Divisions Lyoner Strasse 9 60528 Frankfurt am Main, Germany Phone: +49 69 6302-276 Fax: +49 69 6302-407 E-mail: zvei-be@zvei.org www.zvei.org Responsible: Hans-Martin Fischer, ZVEI Dr. Reiner Korthauer, ZVEI Authors: Jürgen Bilo, Continental Dr. Heinz-Georg Burghoff, Horegulus Consulting Humberto dos Santos, TDK Europe Jürgen Engbring, Leoni Bordnetz Systeme Edmund Erich, Delphi Peter Gresch, OptE GP Consulting Frank Harrmann, Leoni Kabel Dr. Thomas Heckenberger, Mahle Behr Norbert Hees, Kostal Istvan Hegedüs-Bite, ZF Friedrichshafen Dr. Helmut Kalb, Leoni Kabel Dr. Matthias Kriegel-Gemmecke, NSG Dr. Christian Kuper, Johnson Controls Antonio Leone, Freescale Dr. Marc Nalbach, Hella Bernd Piller, Continental Hans Rechberger, Webasto Norbert Schnocks, Continental Richard Schöttle, Robert Bosch Hans-Joachim Schröder, Brose Ulrike Sinner, Valeo Waldemar Stabroth, TE Connectivity Joachim Weitzel, Infineon Michael Günther Zeyen, vancom April 2016 While every care has been taken to ensure the accuracy of this document, ZVEI assumes no liability for the content. All rights reserved. This applies in particular to the storage, reproduction, distribution and translation of this publication. Table of Contents 1. Introduction 4 1.1 CO2-limits: the discussion and results 5 1.2 A look back at the debate on 42-volt systems in 2000 6 1.3 The market for hybrids – issues and trends 7 1.4 Economic context 9 1.5 VDA Recommendation 320 10 1.6 Additional technical challenges 11 2. Architectures 15 2.1 Powertrain 15 2.2 Types of electrical system topologies 17 3. Components 19 3.1 Generators and motors 19 3.2 Heaters and additional heating systems 20 3.3 Air-conditioning compressors 21 3.4 Pumps 22 3.5 Windshield defrosters 22 3.6 Chassis functions 24 3.7 Fan motors 25 3.8 Connecting systems 26 3.9 Wiring harnesses 27 3.10 Inverters 28 3.11 DC/DC converters 28 3.12 Energy and battery management 29 3.13 Active electronic components 30 3.14 Passive components 33 4. Summary and Outlook 36 5. List of Abbreviations 37 3 1. Introduction The automotive industry can only barely con- The new 48-volt voltage level (figure 1) opens tinue or no longer meet the challenge pre- up more cost-effective opportunities for sented by the CO2 targets defined by the Euro- hybridisation. The development of these mul- pean Commission purely by improving standard tiple-voltage architectures in vehicles requires internal combustion engine technology. Alter- detailed investigation at both the systems and native drive concepts that make it possible to components levels. drastically reduce average fleet CO2 emissions will need to be deployed. As part of this process, a third voltage level of 48 volt has been defined to supplement the While today’s hybrid vehicles meet this techni- voltage levels of 12/24 volt and high-voltage (> cal criterion, they are not yet available at suf- 60 volts). The primary purpose of this new volt- ficiently attractive price

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