• Document: PROBLEMS WITH THE IMMUNE SYSTEM. Blood Types, Transplants, Allergies, Autoimmune diseases, Immunodeficiency Diseases
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PROBLEMS WITH THE IMMUNE SYSTEM Blood Types, Transplants, Allergies, Autoimmune diseases, Immunodeficiency Diseases BLOOD GROUPS AND • Antigens on red blood cells determine TRANSFUSIONS whether a person has type A, B, AB, or O blood • Antibodies to nonself blood types exist in the body • Transfusion with incompatible blood leads to destruction of the transfused cells • If bloods of incompatible types are mixed, recipient’s immune system will attack and destroy donor cells RH BLOOD TYPE • Based on the presence or absence of Rh marker on red cells • Can cause problems during pregnancy • If mother is Rh negative • Has previously carried Rh positive child • Is carrying fetus that is Rh positive • Mother’s antibodies can attack fetal cells TISSUE AND ORGAN TRANSPLANTS • Major histocompatibility complex (MHC), group of genes that code for proteins found on the surfaces of cells that help the immune system recognize foreign substances. MHC proteins are found in all higher vertebrates. • Britannica/science TISSUE AND ORGAN TRANSPLANTS • An infected cell or a phagocytic cell will “present” the antigen on their own cell surface in a MHC molecule to “show” leukocytes what to look for in binding antigens. TISSUE AND ORGAN TRANSPLANTS • MHC molecules stimulate rejection of tissue grafts and organ transplants • Chances of successful transplantation increase if donor and recipient MHC tissue types are well matched • Immunosuppressive drugs facilitate transplantation • Lymphocytes in bone marrow transplants may cause a graft versus host reaction in recipients TISSUE AND ORGAN TRANSPLANTS Human Skin Human Kidney Is this OK? Why do people have seasonal allergies? - Eleanor Nelsen https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-q7Fz7NIMWM ALLERGIES • Allergies are exaggerated (hypersensitive) responses to antigens called allergens • In localized allergies, antibodies produced after first exposure to an allergen attach to receptors on mast cells (a type of WBC) ALLERGIES • The next time the allergen enters the body, it binds to mast cell (with associated IgE antibodies) • Mast cells release histamine which causes vascular changes leading to typical allergy symptoms • An acute allergic response can lead to anaphylactic shock, a life- threatening reaction that can occur within seconds of allergen exposure ALLERGIES AUTOIMMUNE DISORDER • A condition that occurs when the immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys healthy body tissue • More than 80 different types! • The immune system can’t tell the difference between healthy body tissue and antigens AUTOIMMUNE DISORDER • Examples of autoimmune (or immune- related) disorders: • The result is an immune • Addison’s disease response that destroys • Celiac disease (gluten-sensitive normal body tissues. enteropathy) • Graves disease • The response is a • Hashimoto’s thyroiditis hypersensitivity reaction • Multiple sclerosis • Myasthenia gravis similar to the response in • Pernicious anemia allergic conditions • Rheumatoid arthritis • Systemic lupus erythematosus • Type I diabetes AUTOIMMUNE DISORDER Celiac Disease Multiple Sclerosis AUTOIMMUNE DISORDER Rheumatoid arthritis Type I Diabetes IMMUNODEFICIENCY DISEASES • Primary immunodeficiency results from hereditary or congenital defects that prevent proper functioning of immune defense • Secondary (or acquired) immunodeficiency results from exposure to chemical and biological agents IMMUNODEFICIENCY DISEASES • Prevents your body from fighting infections and diseases. This type of disorder makes it easier for you to catch viruses and bacterial infections IMMUNODEFICIENCY DISEASES Primary Examples Secondary Examples • X-linked agammaglobulinemia • AIDS (XLA) • Cancers of the immune system, • common variable like leukemia immunodeficiency (CVID) • Immune-complex diseases, like • severe combined viral hepatitis immunodeficiency (SCID), which • Multiple myeloma (cancer of the is known as alymphocytosis or

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