• Document: Nurse Anesthesia History and Practice in the United States. Debra Maloy CRNA, EdD Director Graduate Programs of Nurse Anesthesia
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Nurse Anesthesia History and Practice in the United States Debra Maloy CRNA, EdD 1 Director Graduate Programs of Nurse Anesthesia Historical Preparation Hospital Based Training of Nurses in the US •Hospital based, Sisters •1873 – 3 schools •3 years of service •Little education •Laundry •Housekeeping •55-75 hour/week •Few paying jobs Debra Maloy CRNA, EdD 2 Director Graduate Programs of Nurse Anesthesia Admission Requirements • 17 and 35 years old • Unmarried • Average height and weight • Intelligent • Good moral character • Sound heath Debra Maloy CRNA, EdD 3 Director Graduate Programs of Nurse Anesthesia • Poor pay • Limited Job Availability • TB Debra Maloy CRNA, EdD 4 Director Graduate Programs of Nurse Anesthesia Nurse Anesthesia 1st Clinical Nurse Specialty • 1861 – 1865 Catherine S. Lawrence provided anesthesia U.S. Civil War • 1877 – Sister Mary Bernard 1st nurse to specialize in anesthesia • 1870 – 1920s postgraduate training Sisters • 1909 – 1st Nurse Anesthesia School Debra Maloy CRNA, EdD 5 Director Graduate Programs of Nurse Anesthesia Why delegate anesthesia administration to nurses in the US? • Dropping ether or chloroform relegated to junior residents who were more interested in the operation than the anesthesia. • Many hospitals were without residents. • Nurses were trained to monitor patients and kept their mind on the task. • Nurse were women and accepted lower compensation. • Some theory - ether more stable than chloroform Debra Maloy CRNA, EdD 6 Director Graduate Programs of Nurse Anesthesia Alice Magaw • Mayo Clinic, Rochester Minnesota • 1899 – 1912 worked and published in the field of anesthesia , most articles released in medical journals as “Mayo Clinic Staff” • 1910 – 1940s anesthesia was a nursing service in 75% of the hospitals in the US Debra Maloy CRNA, EdD 7 Director Graduate Programs of Nurse Anesthesia Increased Demand for Professional Nurses 1940 • New hospitalization insurance plans • Influx of World War II casualties • Post war increase in the birth rate Debra Maloy CRNA, EdD 8 Director Graduate Programs of Nurse Anesthesia U.S. Anesthesia Provider Shortage 1945 • 6,400 General Hospitals • 1,400,00 beds • 4,500 Registered Nurse Anesthetists • 400 Certified Anesthesiologists • Approximately 10 million anesthetics / year Debra Maloy CRNA, EdD 9 Director Graduate Programs of Nurse Anesthesia Lucille Petry RN • Army Nurse Corps • Surgeon General and Chief Nurse Officer of the U.S. Public Health Service on June 7, 1949. • Department of Nursing Education • Shift vocational training to professional nursing education. Debra Maloy CRNA, EdD 10 Director Graduate Programs of Nurse Anesthesia Lucille Petry RN • Approved education requirements – basic sciences – fundamentals of nursing • Class + Clinical experience > 48 hours •

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