• Document: An Analysis of the Knowledge and Use of English Collocations by French and Japanese Learners Shino KUROSAKI
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An Analysis of the Knowledge and Use of English Collocations by French and Japanese Learners Shino KUROSAKI Submitted in accordance with the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy University of London Institute in Paris 2012 1 Declaration of Authorship I, Shino Kurosaki, hereby declare that his thesis and the work presented in it is entirely my own. Where I have consulted the work of other, this is always clearly stated. Signed: Date: 2 Abstract While it has been recognized that the use of collocations is significant for L2 learners, much research has not been carried out on the knowledge and use of learner’s collocations. The present study investigated differences on the knowledge and use of collocations between French and Japanese learners with regard to: 1) L1 influence; and 2) combinability and transparency influence. The test materials included four categories of the lexical collocations: 1) verb + noun; 2) delexicalised verb + noun; 3) adjective + noun; and 4) adverb + adjective. The two types of tasks, Multiple Choice Question Tasks and Translation Tasks, are performed, and the learner corpora are also investigated in order to examine whether the learners from different L1 backgrounds demonstrate different results. Since both French and English belong to Indo-European background languages, they share a number of cognate words. Thus, originally it was expected that L1 influence of the French learners would be higher in all of the four lexical collocations than that of Japanese learners, who have non-Indo-European backgrounds. Though L1 influence by both French and Japanese learners was demonstrated, the Japanese learners showed a greater L1 influence in the [adjective + noun] category than the French learners. The investigation also found that L1 influence does not necessarily result in accuracy of the collocations. With regard to the combinability and transparency influence, the results of the two types of tasks followed the previous remark made by Kellerman (1978) who argues that L2 learners are unable to transfer words with figurative meaning. However, some contrasted results were also identified in learner corpus investigation. Thus the combinability and transparency influence were not necessarily identified. The results of the present study have a potential to improve teaching/learning of collocations through recognizing the learners’ tendencies of learning collocations. 3 CONTENTS Abstract 3 Contents 4 List of Tables 9 List of Figures 11 Glossary of Terms and Abbreviations 12 Acknowledgements 13 Chapter 1 Introduction 1.1 Background to the Study 14 1.2 Aims of the Study 16 1.3 Outline of the Study 18 Chapter 2 What are Collocations? : Defining and Classifying Collocations 2.1 Introduction 23 2.2 Definitions and Characteristics of Collocations 23 2.2.1 Scope of Collocations 23 Frequency-based Approach 27 Phraseological Approach 29 2.2.2 Characteristics of Collocations 30 Combinability 30 Transparency 33 2.3 Collocations in the Present Study 37 2.3.1 Lexical and Grammatical Collocations 37 2.3.2 Target Collocations in the Present Study 39 2.4 Summary 40 4 Chapter 3 Collocations in Second Language Acquisition 3.1 Introduction 42 3.2 Collocations in Language Learning 43 3.2.1 Studies on Prefabs and Their Relevance to Collocations 43 3.2.2 Memory-based and Usage-Based Approaches 44 3.3 Previous Research on the Use of Co

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