• Document: Fracturing Fluid Flowback Reuse Project
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Fracturing Fluid Flowback Reuse Project Prepared by M--II SWACO, a Schlumberger Company for Petroleum Technology Alliance of Canada and the Science and Community Environmental Knowledge (SCEK) Fund Decision Tree & Guidance Manual Fracturing Fluid Flowback Reuse Project Prepared by M--II SWACO, a Schlumberger Company for Petroleum Technology Alliance of Canada and the Science and Community Environmental Knowledge (SCEK) Fund Table of Contents Acknowledgements ....................................................................................................................... 1 Disclaimer ...................................................................................................................................... 3 Executive Summary ...................................................................................................................... 4 1.0 Introduction and Background ............................................................................................... 5 2.0 Shale Gas Development and Hydraulic Fracturing Technologies ..................................... 8 2.1 Introduction........................................................................................................................... 8 2.2 Horizontal Drilling Technology............................................................................................ 8 2.3 Hydraulic Fracturing Technology......................................................................................... 9 2.4 Development of Shale Gas Areas ....................................................................................... 10 3.0 Integrated Water Management Plan .................................................................................. 12 3.1 Change Source Water ......................................................................................................... 15 3.2 Blending or Dilution ........................................................................................................... 15 3.3 Blending Process................................................................................................................. 16 3.4 Pre-Fracture Treatment ....................................................................................................... 19 3.5 Flowback Period ................................................................................................................. 20 3.6 Pre-Disposal ........................................................................................................................ 20 4.0 Characterization of Source Water and Flowback ............................................................. 21 4.1 Flowback Fluid Composition.............................................................................................. 22 4.2 Residual Fracturing Additives in Flowback ....................................................................... 27 4.3 Databases ............................................................................................................................ 31 5.0 Decision Tree ......................................................................................................................... 32 Step 1. Select the percentage of flowback to blend with source water..................................... 32 Step 2. Run compatibility model on the blend to check for fluid scaling................................. 36 Step 3. Are the source water and flowback fluid compatible from scaling, bacteria, and corrosion perspectives? ............................................................................................................. 39 Step 4. Dilution. ........................................................................................................................ 40 Step 5. Water conditioning by chemical addition. .................................................................... 40 Step 6. Is water conditioning by chemical addition a good option? ......................................... 40 Table of Contents 1 Step 7. Evaluate water conditioning by physical/chemical water treatment to resolve identified problem. .................................................................................................................................... 41 Step 8. Is water conditioning by physical/chemical treatment a good option?......................... 41 Step 9. Are the blend and formation compatible?..................................................................... 42 Step 10. Select hydraulic fracturing process............................................................................. 43 Step 11. Are the blend (including residual additives from flow back and added

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