• Document: The Enlightenment in Europe Close Read
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The Enlightenment in Europe Close Read Standards Alignment Text with Close Read instructions for students Intended to be the initial read in which students annotate the text as they read. Students may want to circle unfamiliar vocabulary, underline key ideas, or comment on the information presented. Standards Alignment • California State Standards for Grade 10 – 10.2 Students compare and contrast the Glorious Revolution of England, the American Revolution, and the French Revolution and their enduring effects worldwide on the political expectations for self-government and individual liberty. • 1. Compare the major ideas of philosophers and their effects on the democratic revolutions in England, the United States, France, and Latin America (e.g., John Locke, Charles-Louis Montesquieu, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Simón Bolívar, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison). • Common Core Reading Standards for Literacy in History/Social Science for Grades 9 & 10 Students: – RH 1 - Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of primary and secondary sources, attending to such features as the date and origin of the information. – RH 2 - Determine the central ideas or information of a primary or secondary source; provide an accurate summary of how key events or ideas develop over the course of the text. – RH 3 - Analyze in detail a series of events described in a text; determine whether earlier events caused later ones or simply preceded them. – RH 4 - Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including vocabulary describing political, social, or economic aspects of history/social studies. – RH 5 - Analyze how a text uses structure to emphasize key points or advance an explanation or analysis. • Common Core Writing Standards for Literacy in History/Social Science for Grades 9 & 10 Students: – WHST 4 - Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. – WHST 9 - Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. The Enlightenment in Europe Directions: As you read, circle unfamiliar vocabulary, underline key ideas, and comment on the information presented. Two Views on Government What were the views of Hobbes and Locke? The Enlightenment was an intellectual movement. Enlightenment thinkers tried to apply reason and the scientific method to laws that shaped human actions. They hoped to build a society founded on ideas of the Scientific Revolution. Two English writers – Thomas Hobbes and John Locke – were important to this movement. They came to very different conclusions about government and human nature. Hobbes wrote that there would be a war of “every man against every man” if there were no government. To avoid war, Hobbes said, people formed a social contract. It was between people and their government. People gave up their rights to the government so they could live in a safe and orderly way. The best government, he said, is that of a strong king who can force all people to obey. John Locke believed that people have three natural rights. They are life, liberty, and property. The purpose of government is to protect these rights. When it fails to do so, he said, people have a right to overthrow the government. The Philosophes Advocate Reason Who were the philosophes? French thinkers called philosophes had five main beliefs: (1) thinkers can find the truth by using reason; (2) what is natural is good and reasonable, and human actions are shaped by natural laws; (3) acting according to nature can bring happiness; (4) by taking a scientific view, people and society can make progress and advance to a better life; and (5) by using reason, people can gain freedom. The Enlightenment in Europe Directions: As you read, circle unfamiliar vocabulary, underline key ideas, and comment on the information presented. The most brilliant of the philosophes was the writer Voltaire. He fought for tolerance, reason, freedom of religious belief, and freedom of speech. Baron de Montesquieu wrote about separation of powers – dividing power among the separate branches of government. The third great phil

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