• Document: Completion engineering
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3.7 Completion engineering 3.7.1 Introduction accessories (nipples, circulating valves, artificial lift systems). Well completion is an upstream petroleum activity Completion engineering has the following aims: whose aim is to furnish the well, once it has been a) to meet the requested targets of production/injection drilled and cased, with all of the equipment needed rates; b) to choose the simplest layout from the to bring the hydrocarbons to the surface, both possibilities available for a given level of functionality in the case of natural flow (Fig. 1) and artificial lift and results; c) to meet the needs of safety and respect (Fig. 2). A completed well is therefore equipped for the environment; d) to provide enough flexibility with the basic components needed for production: for any changes during the working life of the well; e) production tubing, safety and interception systems to meet all of the above needs at the lowest capital and (packer, downhole valve, christmas trees) and operating costs. christmas tree composed of manual and automatic christmas tree composed of gate valves manual and automatic valves and penetrators for electrical cables Surface Controlled Subsurface Surface Controlled Subsurface Safety Valve (SCSSV) Safety Valves (SCSSV) packer fluid packer with penetrators tubing casing tubing electrical cable cement cement packer electric submersible pump accessories seating nipples electrical motor perforated casing perforated casing Fig. 1. Single completed well Fig. 2. Well completed with artificial lift in natural flowing. with Electric Submersible Pump (ESP). VOLUME I / EXPLORATION, PRODUCTION AND TRANSPORT 425 DRILLING AND COMPLETION OF WELLS All of the above is not always possible, particularly Development with clusters as far as low cost is concerned. Therefore, even in The development of an onshore field by using the presence of high capital costs, it is important clusters of wells leads to some complications to consider the benefits deriving from more complex regarding both well location and drilling. The cluster and costly layouts in terms of greater production (see Chapter 5.1) is usually constituted by a single (early or increased production) and in terms of their cellar (a cellar is a ditch dug at the site to effectiveness over time (less workover, simpler accommodate the wellhead in order to limit the management). The role of a completion is therefore to environmental impact, leaving only the production link the reservoir to the surface in order to produce christmas tree above ground level) in which the wells hydrocarbons. Other equally important aims are to evenly spaced. The drilling and management of a protect the production casing from pressure effects and cluster must take different needs into account: the from the composition of the produced fluids cellar must be deep enough for the highest wellhead, in (corrosion), to monitor the reservoir production data, a production/injection configuration, so that a drilling to prevent the formation of deposits that could obs

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