• Document: Coal Mining in Turkey and its Role in Energy Supply
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Article www.miningturkeymag.com Coal Mining in Turkey and its Role in Energy Supply CONTACTS other sedimentary rocks of plants and classification. Low-rank coals (lignite inorganic minerals for millions of years. and sub-bituminous) are called also as Halim Demirkan It is also described as solid and combus- brown coals and contain high moisture Mining Engineer, MSc tible compositions which are observed and high volatile substance. They are KÖMÜRDER Secretary-General as fossils today within geological for- grey, soft and fragile. High-rank coals (bi- komurder@gmail.com mations of different ages that deposit tuminous and anthracite) are called as as a result of dissolution and degrada- hard coals also and contain low moisture tion of plants that once were alive. and low volatile content. They are black, According to some people coal is a ma- Carbonization hard, rigid and have vitreous luster. terial which pollutes the environment, It occurs with continuous sedimenta- They are classified in four main categories: poisons around when it is used mali- tion of peats (plant material) and de- 1. Low Rank (brown) Coals: These are ciously in energy generation at power composition under physical and chem- non coking coals. They are used in elec- plants and furthermore increases ical changes under sufficient pressure tricity generation greenhouse gas emission and carbon and temperature. Time of exposure to 2.1. Hard coal: They are bituminous emission. Moreover for production, temperature and pressure effects is the coals. They are divided in two categories deforestation, environmental impact most important factor affecting car- as coking coal and steam coal. Steam and,tens of people who passed away at bonization. Carbonization is geologi- coals cover sub-bituminous coal in some occupational accidents should also be cally a low-level metamorphism and countries. Steam coals are used mainly noted. Actually it is completely a con- comprised of peat, lignite, bituminous in heating and electricity generation. tradiction in terms. coal and hard coal formation series. 2.2. Anthracite: This group is of non Whilst forest area destroyed for mines Carbonization is made up of biochemi- coking coal type. It is used mostly in are stated in millesimal, double-digit cal and geochemical phases. Whereas industry. figures given for road and construction biochemical phase causes plant resi- 1. Global Reserves works by percentage are being ignored dues to turn to peat in anaerobic en- According to the assessment of Ger- and coal becomes an undesired raw vironment, geochemical phase causes man Federal Institute for Geosciences material for energy. peat to turn to lignite and bituminous and Natural Resources (BGR) values Place of Turkey in global coal sec- coal respectively and eventually to regarding global proven coal reserves tor was tried to be determined in this anthracite (hard coal) under sufficient are listed in Table 1. In this assessment study which intended to show where pressure and temperature. As the de- all coals with heating value over 3.940 Turkey takes place generally across gree of carbonization increases, volatile kcal/kg are considered as hard coals the world in coal mining and electric- content and moisture decreases and and sub-bituminous coal and anthra- ity generation based on coal, its global calorific value increases. cite are included. Coals with heating power and/or status in the light of the Characteristics and value lower than 3.940 kcal/kg are clas- vicious cycles into which Turkey goes Classification sified as lignite (brown coal). through during the stages of availabil- Since coals form at different geological According to this table global hard coal ity and sustainability like foreign de- times, they are observed at different reserve is totally 688 billion 456 million pendency in energy by 62% and great carbonization levels with varying or- tons. Almost half of it pertains to USA risk brought by it, security of supply, ganic and mineral content. Coal forma- and China. When India, Russian Fed- current deficit and loss of employment. tions show variations prominently ac- eration and Australia following them on Coal cording to geological

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